Abortus imminens


Abortus imminens is the threat of miscarriage before 20 weeks of gestation. This condition is characterized by vaginal bleeding that is not accompanied by dilatation of the cervix. A pregnancy in imminent abortion can be saved, but if it is not treated quickly, the sufferer can experience a miscarriage. 

Imminent abortion, also called threatened abortion, occurs in 20–30% of all pregnancies. Some pregnancies with an imminent abortion miscarry, while others can be saved. 

Quick treatment can prevent miscarriage due to imminent abortion. Therefore, it is necessary to see a doctor as soon as possible if the expectant mother experiences symptoms of an imminent abortion. 

Causes of Imminent Abortion

The cause of an imminent abortion is not known with certainty. However, the following factors can increase the risk of an imminent abortion:

  1. had a bacterial or viral infection, such as rubella, while pregnant
  2. had an abdominal injury
  3. Suffer from certain diseases that are not treated properly, such as diabetes or thyroid disease.
  4. Suffering from disorders of the uterus, such as uterine polyps or uterine cysts
  5. having a difference in rhesus blood group between mother and fetus (rhesus incompatibility)
  6. Taking certain drugs, such as diclofenac or misoprostol,
  7. Smoke
  8. Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages
  9. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as heavy metals or cleaning solvents
  10. Be over 35 years old when pregnant.
  11. suffer from obesity
  12. experiencing a deficiency in levels of the hormone progesterone, because this hormone plays a role in preparing and strengthening the uterine wall during pregnancy.

symptoms of imminent abortion

Symptoms that can arise due to an imminent abortion include:

  • Bleeding from the vagina in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy
  • stomach cramps
  • Low back pain
  • feeling of pressure in the waist
  • back pain
Back pain and stomach cramps can be constant or come and go. If the condition gets worse, blood clots can come out of the vagina. 

When to see a doctor

If you are pregnant and experience the symptoms mentioned above, immediately go to the emergency room at the nearest hospital or health service. Handling by a doctor who is done immediately can avoid the risk of miscarriage. 

Imminent abortion diagnosis

The doctor will begin the diagnosis by asking and answering questions about the symptoms experienced by the patient and the patient's medical history. After that, the doctor will carry out a physical examination, including a pelvic examination, to detect whether a miscarriage has occurred or not. 

During a pelvic examination, the doctor will check whether there is an opening of the birth canal (opening of the cervix) or rupture of the membranes. The doctor will also do a pregnancy ultrasound to check the heart rate and fetal development. 

The doctor can also carry out further examinations, such as:

  • Complete a blood test to check hemoglobin levels, which can decrease due to bleeding, as well as check blood type and rhesus in the mother and fetus.
  • urine test to detect urinary tract infection
  • hCG beta test to determine gestational age and detect incomplete miscarriage or fetal death

Imminent Abortion Treatment

Treatment of imminent abortion aims to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Some of the treatment methods that can be used are:

First treatment

As a first step, the doctor will encourage the patient to do self-care, such as:

  • Doing bed rest
  • Not having sex
  • No exercise
  • Don't use tampons.
  • Don't travel far.
  • Drugs
Apart from carrying out independent treatment at home, doctors can also provide medicines. Drugs that can be given include progesterone, such as dydrogesterone, to strengthen the uterine wall, and Rh immunoglobulin, to treat rhesus incompatibility. 

Imminent Abortion Complications

If not treated immediately, imminent abortion can cause several complications, including:

  • Miscarriage
  • Severe bleeding
  • Infection of the lining of the endometrium (endometritis)
  • Miscarriage accompanied by infection (septic abortion)
  • Depression and anxiety disorders

Prevention of Imminent Abortion

Given that the cause is not known with certainty, an imminent abortion is difficult to prevent. However, the risk of these conditions can be reduced by maintaining a healthy pregnancy. Some efforts that can be made are:

  • Undergo a TORCH examination before planning a pregnancy.
  • Treating bacterial or viral infections before planning a pregnancy
  • Take folic acid supplements according to the doctor's advice.
  • Stop smoking or consuming alcoholic beverages.
  • Reduce consumption of caffeinated drinks.
  • Avoid exposure to chemicals.
  • Exercise at least two times a week.
  • Do not abuse NAPZA.
  • Avoid foods that can harm the mother and fetus, such as raw foods.
In addition to some of the things above, expectant mothers are also advised to always check their pregnancy with a doctor so that the condition of the fetus can always be monitored. Prospective mothers who suffer from chronic diseases, such as diabetes, also need to treat their illness by going to the doctor regularly for treatment and control. 

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